Samuel 16.1-13close1 Samuel 16:1-13 David Anointed King 16:1 The Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you grieve over Saul, since I have rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil, and go. I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have provided for myself a king among his sons.” And Samuel said, “How can I go? If Saul hears it, he will kill me.” And the Lord said, “Take a heifer with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ And invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you shall do. And you shall anoint for me him whom I declare to you.” Samuel did what the Lord commanded and came to Bethlehem. The elders of the city came to meet him trembling and said, “Do you come peaceably?” And he said, “Peaceably; I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Consecrate yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice.” And he consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice. When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord's anointed is before him.” But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” Then Jesse called Abinadab and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” Then Jesse made Shammah pass by. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” 10 And Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel. And Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen these.” 11 Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Are all your sons here?” And he said, “There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is keeping the sheep.” And Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and get him, for we will not sit down till he comes here.” 12 And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the Lord said, “Arise, anoint him, for this is he.” 13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon David from that day forward. And Samuel rose up and went to Ramah. (ESV) close1 Samuel 16:1-13close1 Samuel 16:1-13 David Anointed King 16:1 The Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you grieve over Saul, since I have rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil, and go. I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have provided for myself a king among his sons.” And Samuel said, “How can I go? If Saul hears it, he will kill me.” And the Lord said, “Take a heifer with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ And invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you shall do. And you shall anoint for me him whom I declare to you.” Samuel did what the Lord commanded and came to Bethlehem. The elders of the city came to meet him trembling and said, “Do you come peaceably?” And he said, “Peaceably; I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Consecrate yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice.” And he consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice. When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord's anointed is before him.” But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” Then Jesse called Abinadab and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” Then Jesse made Shammah pass by. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” 10 And Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel. And Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen these.” 11 Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Are all your sons here?” And he said, “There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is keeping the sheep.” And Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and get him, for we will not sit down till he comes here.” 12 And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the Lord said, “Arise, anoint him, for this is he.” 13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon David from that day forward. And Samuel rose up and went to Ramah. (ESV) David Anointed King 16:1 The Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you grieve over Saul, since I have rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil, and go. I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have provided for myself a king among his sons.” And Samuel said, “How can I go? If Saul hears it, he will kill me.” And the Lord said, “Take a heifer with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ And invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you shall do. And you shall anoint for me him whom I declare to you.” Samuel did what the Lord commanded and came to Bethlehem. The elders of the city came to meet him trembling and said, “Do you come peaceably?” And he said, “Peaceably; I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Consecrate yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice.” And he consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice. When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord's anointed is before him.” But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” Then Jesse called Abinadab and made him pass before Samuel. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” Then Jesse made Shammah pass by. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” 10 And Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel. And Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen these.” 11 Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Are all your sons here?” And he said, “There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is keeping the sheep.” And Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and get him, for we will not sit down till he comes here.” 12 And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the Lord said, “Arise, anoint him, for this is he.” 13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon David from that day forward. And Samuel rose up and went to Ramah. (ESV)

Esse texto nos apresenta o início da história de Davi. O contexto da história nos revela que Saul, até então o rei de Israel, havia sido rejeitado por Deus. A sua rejeição não se deu porque ele era uma pessoa incapaz, ímpia ou perversa, nem tampouco porque ele era simplesmente um pecador. Ele foi rejeitado porque tinha um coração soberbo. Saul jamais se reconhecia errado e não se dobrava diante das evidências do seu próprio erro. Antes, ele sempre buscava se justificar. Samuel, o profeta, durante muito tempo, chorou e pranteou por causa da rejeição de Saul. Era como que se Samuel esperasse uma reconsideração de Deus, para que Ele reconduzisse Saul ao trono. Contudo, diante do choro de Samuel, Deus disse: “Basta!”, e perguntou: “Até quando terás pena de Saul, havendo-o eu rejeitado, para que não reine sobre Israel?” (I Sm 16.1)

Deus tinha outros planos para o seu povo, outro pastor para colocar à frente do seu rebanho. Por isso, Ele enviou Samuel à cidade de Belém e à família de Jessé. Ao chegar a Belém, Samuel convocou todo o povo para o culto ao Senhor. Ele havia recebido a direção de não apenas ungir o novo rei, mas também de celebrar um culto a Deus juntamente com os moradores de Belém. Quando todos chegaram para participar daquele momento, incluindo Jessé e seus filhos, Samuel imaginou estar diante do novo rei quando viu o primogênito de Jessé.

Eliabe era um homem alto e forte, e era um soldado dos exércitos de Israel. Contudo, Samuel foi enganado pelos seus próprios sentidos. Deus não havia escolhido aquele homem nem os outros 6 que o seguiram. Samuel ficou intrigado: se estavam ali todos os filhos de Jessé, e Deus lhe havia afirmado que um dos filhos de Jessé seria ungido rei, o que estava acontecendo? Então, “Samuel perguntou a Jessé: Acabaram-se os teus filhos?” (I Sm 16.11) Apesar de ter Samuel convocado todos os habitantes de Belém, de fato Jessé possuía um outro filho que não estava presente: Davi. Ele estava apascentando as ovelhas quando se deu a convocação, e ninguém havia se lembrado de chamá-lo. Mas aquele que tinha sido esquecido por todos não foi esquecido por Deus; ele era o futuro rei de Israel. Ao ver Davi, que era “(…) ruivo, de belos olhos e boa aparência. Disse o Senhor: Levanta-te e unge-o, pois este é ele. Tomou Samuel o chifre do azeite e o ungiu no meio de seus irmãos; e, daquele dia em diante, o Espírito do Senhor se apossou de Davi. Então, Samuel se levantou e foi para Rama.” (I Sm 16.12,13)

Esse texto nos mostra que os critérios de Deus são totalmente diferentes dos critérios dos homens. A escolha de Deus não é feita de acordo com os critérios das pessoas. Desde a mais tenra idade, o primogênito do rei era preparado para ocupar o lugar do pai, quando esse viesse a morrer. Ele era educado pelos homens mais sábios, recebia aulas de espada, aprendia a usar o arco e a flecha, tinha aulas de montaria, acompanhava o pai nas visitas administrativas, visitava diplomaticamente as cidades, era comandante do exército, aprendia algumas noções de administração e era ensinado a viver na corte. De acordo com esse critério, o próximo rei de Israel deveria ser Jônatas, o primogênito de Saul. O próprio Saul testificou esse entendimento em 1 Samuel 20.31close1 Samuel 20:31 31 For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, neither you nor your kingdom shall be established. Therefore send and bring him to me, for he shall surely die.” (ESV) close1 Samuel 20:31close1 Samuel 20:31 31 For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, neither you nor your kingdom shall be established. Therefore send and bring him to me, for he shall surely die.” (ESV) 31 For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, neither you nor your kingdom shall be established. Therefore send and bring him to me, for he shall surely die.” (ESV) : “Pois, enquanto o filho de Jessé viver sobre a terra, nem tu estarás seguro, nem seguro o teu reino; pelo que mandas buscá-lo agora, porque deve morrer.” Aos olhos das pessoas, Jônatas se encaixava em todos os critérios estabelecidos.

Entretanto, Deus não age segundo os pensamentos das pessoas. Para Deus, não importa se as pessoas estabeleceram que o líder deve ser descendente do último, ter um curso superior, ser inteligente, bonito, rico, bem sucedido nos negócios ou conhecido da população. Está registrado em Isaías 55.8,9: “Porque os meus pensamentos não são os vossos pensamentos, nem os vossos caminhos, os meus caminhos, diz o Senhor, porque, assim como os céus são mais altos do que a terra, assim são os meus caminhos mais altos do que os vossos caminhos, e os meus pensamentos, mais altos do que os vossos pensamentos.”

A escolha de Deus não é feita de acordo com a aparência da pessoa. Em 1 Samuel 16.6,7close1 Samuel 16:6 When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord's anointed is before him.” 1 Samuel 16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (ESV) close1 Samuel 16:6close1 Samuel 16:6 When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord's anointed is before him.” (ESV) When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord's anointed is before him.” 1 Samuel 16:7close1 Samuel 16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (ESV) But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (ESV) , nós lemos: “Sucedeu que, entrando eles, viu a Eliabe e disse consigo: Certamente, está perante o Senhor o seu ungido. Porém o Senhor disse a Samuel: Não atentes para a sua aparência, nem para a sua altura, porque o rejeitei; porque o Senhor não vê como vê o homem. O homem vê o exterior, porém, o Senhor, o coração.” A aparência sempre foi algo extremamente importante para as pessoas. Quando Saul foi escolhido como rei de Israel, a sua aparência chamou a atenção de todos. O texto de 1 Samuel 10.23,24close1 Samuel 10:23 23 Then they ran and took him from there. And when he stood among the people, he was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upward. 1 Samuel 10:24 24 And Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see him whom the Lord has chosen? There is none like him among all the people.” And all the people shouted, “Long live the king!” (ESV) close1 Samuel 10:23close1 Samuel 10:23 23 Then they ran and took him from there. And when he stood among the people, he was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upward. (ESV) 23 Then they ran and took him from there. And when he stood among the people, he was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upward. 1 Samuel 10:24close1 Samuel 10:24 24 And Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see him whom the Lord has chosen? There is none like him among all the people.” And all the people shouted, “Long live the king!” (ESV) 24 And Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see him whom the Lord has chosen? There is none like him among all the people.” And all the people shouted, “Long live the king!” (ESV) registra esse fato. O próprio Samuel, mesmo profeta do Senhor, se inclinou a tomar algumas decisões segundo a aparência, ao colocar os seus olhos em Eliabe. Sendo assim, como Deus escolhe os seus líderes?

A escolha de Deus é feita de acordo com seus próprios critérios. Talvez esse seja o ponto mais difícil para nós, porque não sabemos definir com clareza quais são esses critérios. Eles são totalmente imprevisíveis. Segundo o entendimento das pessoas daquela época, o possível líder de Israel deveria ser Jônatas, porque ele era o filho do rei. Em segundo lugar, o primogênito tinha sempre a primazia por ser a pessoa mais importante em uma casa, depois do pai. Era ele quem herdava a posição de chefe quando o pai falecia. Por fim, pensando nas circunstâncias pelas quais Israel estava passando – lutas, guerras, conquistas de territórios – o mais natural seria imaginar que a escolha de Deus iria recair sobre um soldado, alguém que tivesse conhecimento de guerra, para comandar os exércitos de Israel. Mas Deus frustrou os pensamentos e critérios dos homens escolhendo Davi, o caçula, pastor de ovelhas.

Quando Jesus veio chamar Natanael para ser discípulo esse, ao saber que Jesus vinha de Nazaré, perguntou: “De Nazaré pode sair alguma coisa boa?” (Jo 1.46closeJohn 1:46 46 Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” (ESV) closeJohn 1:46closeJohn 1:46 46 Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” (ESV) 46 Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” (ESV) ) Aos olhos dos homens, Jesus jamais poderia ser o Ungido de Deus. Contudo, Deus, o Pai, já o havia chamado desde a eternidade para ser o Salvador dos homens. Paulo disse, em I Coríntios 1.26-29: “Irmãos, reparai, pois, na vossa vocação; visto que não foram chamados muitos sábios segundo a carne, nem muitos poderosos, nem muitos de nobre nascimento; pelo contrário, Deus escolheu as coisas loucas do mundo para envergonhar os sábios e escolheu as coisas fracas do mundo para envergonhar as fortes; e Deus escolheu as coisas humildes do mundo, e as desprezadas, e aquelas que não são, para reduzir a nada as que são; a fim de que ninguém se vanglorie na presença de Deus.”

A escolha de Deus é feita de acordo com o coração da pessoa. Em 1 Samuel 16.7close1 Samuel 16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (ESV) close1 Samuel 16:7close1 Samuel 16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (ESV) But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (ESV) , lemos: “(…) O homem vê o exterior, porém, o Senhor, o coração.” Ainda que aos nossos olhos os critérios de Deus sejam imprevisíveis e insondáveis, a Bíblia nos ensina que Deus, preferencialmente, escolhe aqueles que têm um coração que agrade a Ele. A palavra coração, nesse texto e em toda a Bíblia, faz referência à totalidade da vida interior do ser humano. Sem dúvida, há várias coisas que conseguem influenciar uma pessoa a agir de uma determinada maneira. É exatamente isso que Deus enxerga. Ananias e Safira, por exemplo, tiveram uma boa atitude ao dar uma oferta para a igreja; contudo, a motivação do coração deles era errada, e por isso, Deus os rejeitou. Tiago, falando sobre a boa atitude da oração, escreve que a motivação errada impede uma pessoa de receber o seu pedido de oração: “Pedis e não recebeis porque pedis mal, para esbanjardes em vossos prazeres.” (Tg 4.3) Tendo a pessoa o genuíno desejo de glorificar a Deus, de entregar-se a Ele, de ser-lhe fiel e de prestar-lhe obediência, então Deus a olha com preferencial disposição de fazê-la líder.

Fonte: gospelmais

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